The poor state of the quality of discharge into the receiving environment has a cumulative effect on water quality in rivers, lakes, wetlands and in groundwater. Most of South Africa’s rivers and wetlands ecosystems are threatened. This spells further natural disaster because these systems play a vital role in supporting ecosystem services such as flood control, drought mitigation and nature-based water treatment.
Historical landscape photographs have been matched with modern images and used to analyse changes in alpine glaciers, hydrology and soil erosion, and vegetation, including changes in the populations of long-lived desert succulents and savanna trees.
Repeat photography is increasingly being seen as an important tool for monitoring the impact of climate change on vulnerable species and threatened ecosystems.