South Africa’s electricity sector has faced a series of challenges over the last two decades. It started with inadequate grid infrastructure to provide electricity to the majority of the South African population in the 1990s. In 1994, only 36% of total households were electrified; 50% of the urban population and 12% of the rural population.
Particularly in the middle of the 2000s, the national utility, Eskom, ran into liquidity and profitability problems. It received frequent government bailouts. The 2022 national budget allocated R21.9 billion (about US$1.5 billion) to Eskom.
The Ministry of Environment and Forestry said in July 2021 that 59% of Indonesia’s rivers are heavily polluted to the point that they no longer support living organisms. Only 8.9% of the country’s rivers have a light pollution level that allows for plants and living creatures to endure.