As global sea levels have risen by 23cm in the last 150 years, Nigeria has been particularly hard hit. Along its extensive and populous coast, sea surges in recent years have displaced millions of people, killed hundreds, and destroyed homes, villages, and vast farmlands. With sea levels predicted to rise another 50cm by the end of the century due to climate change, floods are set to become even harsher and more frequent. Under this scenario, an estimated 27 to 53 million people will need to be relocated.
Nigeria has a strong ambition to industrialise. It has relied heavily on the restriction of imports of certain goods targeted for domestic production. But for Nigeria’s industrialisation drive to succeed, it needs a broader array of industrial policy tools than simply import restrictions.
These tools should include addressing binding constraints in different sectors to raise productivity. And addressing the flaws in the design and implementation of industrial policies.
Nanotechnology is one of the engines of the fourth industrial revolution. The global market of nanotechnology-enabled products stood at approximately US$1.6 trillion in 2014. In one estimate, the industry could generate 6 million jobs and account for 10% of global GDP by 2030.
Nanotechnology creates, uses and studies materials at nanoscale - one nanometre is a billionth of a metre. Some of these materials occur in nature. DNA, proteins and viruses are examples. Others can be created by slicing larger molecules into smaller ones or by building up atoms into nanoparticles.
In West Africa, mistletoes are found on many indigenous trees and several tree crops of economic importance. These hosts include shea, neem, sweet orange, cocoa, rubber and the African locust bean tree.
The African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) is regarded as an important tree crop, used for medicine and food. The trees also play a valuable role in nutrient cycling by fixing atmospheric nitrogen in soils. They are susceptible to mistletoe infection and agroforestry managers usually eradicate the parasitic plant.